A metabolic process which converts sugar to acids, gases and/or alcohol is called as fermentation. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, etc., Fermentation is also used more broadly to refer to the bulk growth of microorganisms on a growth medium. Fermentation does not necessarily have to be carried out in an anaerobic environment. For example, even in the presence of abundant oxygen, yeast cells greatly prefer fermentation to aerobic respiration, as long as sugars are readily available for consumption. The antibiotic activity of hops also inhibits aerobic metabolism in yeast.
High-impact journals are those considered to be highly influential in their respective fields. The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
Last date updated on June, 2014