|Public affairs work combines government relations, media communications, issue management, corporate and social responsibility, information dissemination and strategic communications advice. Public affairs is a term used to describe an organisations relationship with stakeholders. These are individuals or groups with an interest in the organisation's affairs, such as politicians (MPs, MSPs, AMs, MLAs, MEPs), civil servants, customers and local communities, clients, shareholders, trade associations, think tanks, business groups, charities, unions and the media. Practitioners aim to influence public policy, build and maintain a strong reputation and find common ground with stakeholders.
High-impact journals are those considered to be highly influential in their respective fields. The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.