Hybrid rice is rice that has been created by crossing two different parental strains. Such crosses generally result in an F1 generation that is more robust than either of the parental strains. The improved qualities of the F1 generation is referred to as "hybrid vigour" or "heterosis". The hybrid vigour may result in superior agronomic qualities such as higher yield, stronger resistance to diseases, more efficient use of soil nutrients, and better weed control. Hybrid vigour and other superior qualities arising from crossing genetically different plants have been well known and used by traditional crop breeders for decades.In the past, the production of hybrid rice strains was limited by rice's inherent propensity to self-pollinate. In 1974, Chinese scientists overcame this when they developed the first generation of hybrid rice using a three-line hybrid system based on cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines and hybrid combinations. In 1996, an even more efficient second generation of hybrid rice was developed based on photoperiod-sensitive genetic male sterility (PGMS) lines.
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Last date updated on September, 2020