|Previous studies in patients with an impaired efferent baroreflex led to the discovery that water ingestion induces a robust increase in blood pressure (BP) and vascular resistance. Initially, Jordan et al. demonstrated that ingesting 473 mL (16oz.) of water induces a profound increase in systolic BP averaging approximately40 mmHg in patients with autonomic failure and also elevated BP by approximately 11 mmHg in elderly subjects. This effect appears within 10 min, is maximal at 25-40 min, and largely dissipates by 90 min after water ingestion.
The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information.The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.