|Previous studies in patients with an impaired efferent baroreflex led to the discovery that water ingestion induces a robust increase in blood pressure (BP) and vascular resistance. Initially, Jordan et al. demonstrated that ingesting 473 mL (16oz.) of water induces a profound increase in systolic BP averaging approximately40 mmHg in patients with autonomic failure and also elevated BP by approximately 11 mmHg in elderly subjects. This effect appears within 10 min, is maximal at 25-40 min, and largely dissipates by 90 min after water ingestion.
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