Renal disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in populations with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, as HIV infection has a tendency to progress to a chronic disease. With the prevalence of HIV increasing, the size of HIVinfected population and the longevity of HIV-affected patients are increasing due to the Highly Active Anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). HIV infectioncan cause severe kidney disease directly, including acute kidney injuries, thrombotic micro-angiopathies, HIV-associated Nephropathy (HIVAN), and HIV Immune Complex Kidney Disease (HIVICK). Previously, collapsing Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) were thought to be prevalent in HIV-infected patients, but it has been currently appreciated that kidney disease encompassed the entire spectrum of renal pathologies in the HIV population. Rao et al., divided the HIV-1-associated renal parenchymal diseases into four groups: (1) acute tubular dysfunction with electrolytes abnormalities and/ or renal failure caused by infections and nephrotoxic drugs; (2) HIV glomerulophaties related to immunological abnormalities (3) ; HIVassociated thrombotic micro-angiopathies; and (4) HIVAN. In HIVassociated renal disease patients have a higher risk for End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) than general population. In this review, we highlight the recent advances on the renal complications associated with HIV infection.
Last date updated on June, 2023