|Renal disease is becoming an important cause of morbidity and mortality in populations with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, as HIV infection has a tendency to progress to a chronic disease. With the prevalence of HIV increasing, the size of HIVinfected population and the longevity of HIV-affected patients are increasing due to the Highly Active Anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). HIV infectioncan cause severe kidney disease directly, including acute kidney injuries, thrombotic micro-angiopathies, HIV-associated Nephropathy (HIVAN), and HIV Immune Complex Kidney Disease (HIVICK). Previously, collapsing Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) were thought to be prevalent in HIV-infected patients, but it has been currently appreciated that kidney disease encompassed the entire spectrum of renal pathologies in the HIV population. Rao et al., divided the HIV-1-associated renal parenchymal diseases into four groups: (1) acute tubular dysfunction with electrolytes abnormalities and/ or renal failure caused by infections and nephrotoxic drugs; (2) HIV glomerulophaties related to immunological abnormalities (3) ; HIVassociated thrombotic micro-angiopathies; and (4) HIVAN. In HIVassociated renal disease patients have a higher risk for End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) than general population. In this review, we highlight the recent advances on the renal complications associated with HIV infection.