One of the necessities of life that plants, animals and humans cannot but do without is water. This is needed in a purer form as plants, animals and humans cannot survive if it is loaded with toxic chemicals or harmful microorganisms. Polluted water with prolonged exposure has several effects on human health, as it may lead to cancers, birth defects and various sicknesses.
Wide scale production, transport use and disposal of petroleum globally have made it a major contamination in both prevalence and quantity in the environment. The oil gets mixed with the river or marine water by many ways such as accidental spills or discharge of refineries and oil terminals in river or other water bodies. The petrochemical industries and refineries are quite useful for developing a nation and adding more quality to life. However, various wastes are being generated through these sectors. The unwholesome and environmentally unacceptable pollution effects of these wastes have been reported world-wide.
Waste water released by the refineries, petrochemical industries and oil storage facilities are characterized by the presence of large quantities of crude oil products, polycyclic and aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, metal derivatives, surface-active substances, sulfides, naphthylenic acids and other chemicals .Treatment of this wastewater is quite problematic and their purification is ineffective especially with the use of chemical and mechanical methods. Therefore the need calls for a better method. Bioremediation according to is a new method of oil spill clean-up that is far more effective than any of the above methods, and involves the use of microorganisms (Petrophiles) to breakdown complex materials into simple end products. The use of microbes to detoxify and clean up contaminated water has brought about a safe environment today. Nigeria known to be one of the oil producing countries is faced with the challenges of oil spillage problems and our water getting polluted with them. This has led to this study, looking at the bioremediation potential of pseudomonas aeruginosa in removing some heavy metals from industrial effluent waste water. The effectiveness of this bioremediation was tested on albino rats, as they have the same physiology related to humans.
Last date updated on June, 2014