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Journal article is sometimes called a Scientific Article, a Peer-Reviewed Article, or a Scholarly Research Article. Together, journal articles in a particular field are often referred to as The Literature. Journal articles are most often Primary Research Articles. However, they can also be Review Articles. These types of articles have different aims and requirements. Sometimes, an article describes a new tool or method. Because articles in scientific journals are specific, meticulously cited and peer-reviewed, journal databases are the best place to look for information on previous research on your species. Without a background in the field, journal articles may be hard to understand - however, you do not need to understand an entire article to be able to get valuable In 1943, McCulloch and Pitts found that the neuron can be modeled as a simple threshold device to perform logic function. In the late 1950s, Rosenblatt proposed the first neural network model --- the perceptron model as well as its learning algorithm called the Perceptron learning algorithm. Interest in neural networks waned rapidly after Minsky and Papert proved mathematically that the Rosenblattâs simple perceptron model cannot be used for complex logic function . The simple perceptron model cannot correctly classify linearly inseparable patterns. The modern era of neural network research is commonly deemed to have started with the publication of the Hopfield network in 1982 . The Hopfield model works at the system level rather than at a single neuron level. It is an RNN working with the Hebbian rule. As a dynamically stable network, the fixed points of this network can be used as associative memories for information storage as well as solutions to optimization problems. The Boltzmann machine was introduced in 1985 as an extension to the Hopfield network by incorporating stochastic neurons. The Boltzmann learning is based on a method called simulated annealing (SA). SA is a stochastic search method for the global optimum of any objective function.
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Last date updated on June, 2014

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