Management of type one diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires consistent attention throughout the day to balance food intake with insulin, exercise, and monitor glucose levels, in order to avoid hypoglycemia and maintain homeostasis . Landmark longitudinal studies established that tight control of glucose that is accomplished by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy can delay or reduce the severity of long term micro-and macro-vascular complications, thereby extending the lives of people with T1DM about five years. CSII therapy delivers short-acting insulin from a reservoir by means of a subcutaneous cannula and a programmable external pump that replaces injections. Precise doses are delivered in increments of 0.025, 0.05, or 0.01 units, depending on calibration of the medical device, under a physicianâs individualized treatment plan. A basal rate can be tailored for 24 hours/day to provide background of insulin. Then, the user administers daily bolus doses to accommodate extra insulin needs t hat are based on the carbohydrate content of meals. The pump can be temporarily turned off during exercise, bathing and showering, if necessary.
Last date updated on January, 2021