Inflammation is one of the first responses of the immune system to infection. Cytokines are a diverse group of non-antibody proteins that act as mediators between cells. Common cytokines, which regulate inflammatory response, include interleukins that are responsible for communication between white blood cells, chemokines that promote chemotaxis, and interferons that have anti-viral effects. Acute inflammation occurs in response to cell damage resulting from infection or injury. The magnitude of an immune response is determined by the balance between antigen-driven activation of lymphocytes and negative regulatory influences that prevent or dampen the response.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.
Last date updated on July, 2021