|These are the diseases that are caused due to inflammation which is the reaction of the body to injury or to infectious, allergic, or chemical irritation. The symptoms are redness, swelling, heat, and pain resulting from dilation of the blood vessels in the affected part with loss of plasma and leucocytes (white blood cells) into the tissues. White blood cells communicate with each other via cytokines, which are polypeptides released by cells of the immune system that regulate other cells. They are a broad class of soluble compounds that signal one cell type to another, particularly in response to foreign substances. Granulomas are most common in infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis, in which the body's defenses, unable to destroy the offending organisms, try to enclose them in a mass of inflammatory cells.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.