Central diabetes insipidus or central DI is also referred to as pituitary DI hypothalamic DI, neurohypophyseal DI, or neurogenic DI. The common symptoms of the disease are increased urination and thirst similar to diabetes mellitus but both diseases are not related in any sense. The disease is caused due to lack of vasopressin hormone. This hormone is an antidiuretic hormone produced by the hypothalamus gland in the brain and is stored by pituitary gland. Vasopressin increases the concentration of urine and hence, limits the output. In 50% of cases, the cause of central DI is unknown. In the remaining 45-48% of cases the CDI may be caused due to, the reduced levels of vasopressin may be the result of damage to the hypothalamus or the posterior part of the pituitary gland where the hormone is normally produced. This damage in vasopressin producing regions may be due to head trauma, surgery, tumor, infection or inflammation. In very rare cases, Central diabetes insipidus is caused by a genetic defect. The major symptoms of central diabetes insipidus (DI) are nocturia, polyuria, and polydipsia due to the concentrating defect. Treatment of this disorder is primarily aimed at decreasing the urine output, usually by increasing the activity of antidiuretic hormone.
Last date updated on June, 2014