|Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering new findings the Engineering science that studies the behavior of individuals, households, and organizations, when they manage or use scarce resources, which have alternative uses, to achieve desired ends. Irrigation in agriculture, artificial watering of the land. Although used chiefly in regions with annual rainfall of less than 20 in. (51 cm), it is also used in wetter areas to grow certain crops, e.g., rice. Estimates of total irrigated land in the world range from 543 to 618 million acres (220 to 250 million hectares), almost half of them in India, Pakistan, and China. The United States had almost 60 million acres (23.8 million hectares) of irrigated farmland in 1991. Drainage in agriculture, the removal of excess water from the soil, either by a system of surface ditches, or by underground conduits if required by soil conditions and land contour. Diesel or centrifugal pumps are sometimes used to drain large areas. Drainage was practiced in the Nile basin c.400 B.C. and in ancient Rome. Today drain pipes of clay, concrete, or plastic, laid several feet underground, are much used in the United States, where c.110 million farm acres (44.5 million hectares) were artificially drained in 1987. Proper drainage improves soil structure; increases efficiency of phosphorus fertilizer; conserves soil nitrogen; and controls waterlogging, leaching, and salinization of soils caused by irrigation. Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering uses from OMICS Group are an open access journal named as Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering which strives to release issues quarterly and is adamant to publish new findings related to the field of Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering. The mission of the Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering uses provides a forum for publishing new findings on Engineering principles and technology. Currently our primary research objective is to encourage and assist the development of better and faster measures of Engineering activity. In cases where we believe we can contribute directly, as opposed to through highlighting the work of others, we are producing our own measures of Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering.