AnÂ operadÂ is a gadget used to describe algebraic structures inÂ symmetric monoidal categories. It is a bunch of abstract operationsÂ of arbitrarily many arguments, equipped with a notion of how to compose these, subject to evidentÂ associativityÂ andÂ unitalityÂ conditions. Operads are particularly important and useful in categories with a good notion of homotopyÂ, where they play a key role in organizing hierarchies of higher homotopies.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submittedÂ manuscriptsÂ and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the acceptedÂ standardsÂ of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.
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Last date updated on September, 2014