|Magnetohydrodynamics is a branch of science that deals with the dynamics of magnetic fields in electrically conducting fluids. The theory of MHD is that currents are induced in a moving conductive fluid by magnetic fields which creates forces on the fluids and changes the magnetic field itself. MHD applies to the fields of astrophysics and cosmology since matter of the universe is made up of plasma, interplanetary medium, interstellar medium.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.