The organization and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives.
Management is often included as a factor of production along with machines, materials, and money. Management consists of the interlocking functions of creating corporate policy and organizing, planning, controlling, and directing an organization's resources in order to achieve the objectives of that policy.
The directors and managers who have the power and responsibility to make decisions and oversee an enterprise.
The size of management can range from one person in a small organization to hundreds or thousands of managers in multinational companies. In large organizations, the board of directors defines the policy which is then carried out by the chief executive officer, or CEO. Some people agree that in order to evaluate a company's current and future worth, the most important factors are the quality and experience of the managers.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Last date updated on January, 2021