|Marine biology deals with the study of marine micro- and macroorganisms. Marine biology categorizes species based on the surroundings and not on the taxonomy. Marine biology is the study of the organisms as a whole. Diverse range of life forms and their niches are supported by marine environment which include coral reefs, kelp forests, seagrass meadows etc. Marine life comprises bacteria, fungi, algae, water plants, animals like fish, turtles, oysters, whales etc. Apart from these biotic community there exists an abiotic community too which consists of thermal vents, tidepools, pelagic zone etc. Marine life is extensively exploited for its huge resource of various seafood, enzymes, medicines etc. Along with these they also play a major role in amusement and tourism.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.