|The hydraulic transmission system for HEVs is designed to provide electric using two main sources of power as range extender Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and from Battery storage devices. The hydraulic circuit consists of a fixed displacement pump driven by the prime mover (range extender) and two fixed displacement hydraulic motors namely the primary motor and the auxiliary motor . The schematic diagram of a hydraulic transmission system is illustrated in figure 1. A fixed displacement pump is mechanically coupled with the range extender (ICE) and supplies pressurized hydraulic fluid to two fixed displacement hydraulic motors. These motors have maximum power of 5 Hp, maximum speed of 4500 rpm, and maximum burst pressure of 2000 psi. The main hydraulic motor is coupled with the differential to transfer the power of the hydraulic fluid to wheels, while the auxiliary motor is coupled with a generator to produce electric power and charge the batteries. Flexible high-pressure pipes/hoses provide power transfer path from the source to the wheels. Safety devices such as pressure-relief valves and check valves protect the system from high pressure. Directional flow valves and proportional valves are used to direct and regulate the fluid in the system both in electric and gasoline configurations.
The vehicle can accelerate as more fluid is provided from the pump. A proportional valve regulates the fluid flow to the motors to maintain the driver speed commands. Therefore it needs to be translated into proper valve position or battery discharge power rating. The storage unit receives the energy of the excess flow captured at the gasoline configuration in form of electric power stored in batteries. The stored energy is released back to the system when the vehicle is running in all-electric configuration.[Hamzehlouia S, Izadian A, Anwar S (2013) Modeling and Control of a Hybrid Hydraulic-Electric Propulsion System]