|From the epitome of crunching numbers, statistical science has traveled a long distance. It is time that it is realized as a management science. This is especially true for biostatistics. I seek to define biostatistics as the science of managing medical uncertanities.
Medical uncertainty is easy to handle when divided into aleatory and epistemic types. These terms may sound new to medicine but are commonly used in seismic science and economics. Aleatory uncertainty in medicine arises from endogenous factors such as inherent biological variation, environmental factors, socio-cultural and psychological factors, random variation due to observers, instruments and laboratories, etc. Epistemic uncertainty arises from lack of knowledge, conceptual errors, non-availability of tools, and biases of various types. These sources are exogenous in nature.
Journal Article is sometimes called a Scientific Article, a Peer-Reviewed Article, or a Scholarly Research Article. Together, journal articles in a particular field are often referred to as The Literature. Journal articles are most often Primary Research Articles. However, they can also be Review Articles. These types of articles have different aims and requirements. Sometimes, an article describes a new tool or method. Because articles in scientific journals are specific, meticulously cited and peer-reviewed, journal databases are the best place to look for information on previous research on your species. Without a background in the field, journal articles may be hard to understand - however, you do not need to understand an entire article to be able to get valuable information from it.