Melanin is the main pigment responsible for skin, eye, and hair color. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a seven transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor located in the membrane of epidermal and follicular melanocytes, is a key protein involved in the regulation of melanin production (reviewed in ). Ligands of MC1R include the paracrine hormones, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (Î±-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone.
(Robert K. Valenzuela, Shosuke Ito, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Murray H. Brilliant Prediction Model Validation: Normal Human Pigmentation Variation).
Evidence of clinical association of vitiligo with AID of organs like pernicious anemia, thyroid disease, IDDM
is noted. Eight subtypes are generalised, focal, acrofacial, mucosal, segmental, lip-tip, universalis, unclassified with 30% with minimal type (<2% body surface involvement), 70% extensive type (>5%). In 75% patients, cosmetic success rates observed with split-skin grafting and 35% with epidermal blister grafting which is most commonly used in north-east. 10% used punch graft followed by PUVA or topical fluocinolone acetonide found 80% repigmentation in both cases.
(Lalchamliani Khiangte, Recent clinical advances in Cosmetic treatment and management of different types of skin discoloration and depigmentation in the North-East India)
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Last date updated on June, 2014