Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or geological materials. Mining is done using two excavation types: Surface mining and sub-surface mining. After excavation, the mineral is processed using techniques like Extractive metallurgy and Mineral processing. There are many environmental issues like erosion, loss of biodiversity and ground water contamination by chemicals from mining processes. Many companies are now enforced to follow good environmental standards.
Scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting novel research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that are peer reviewed, to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on June, 2014