|Missing data arise in almost all serious statistical analyses. Missing data are ubiquitous in social science research. It is important to consider the issues raised by missing data at the research design stage. As unplanned missing data inevitably introduce ambiguity into the inferences that can be drawn from a study, the design should be carefully scrutinised to minimise the scope for missing data to arise. Considerable care over this aspect of design will pay a substantial dividend when the study is analysed.
Innovations are the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, inarticulated needs or existing market needs. It is proficient through more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or new ideas that are readily available to markets, governments and society. Innovations are something original and novel, as a significant, new that âbreaks intoâ the market or society.