|The motor neuron disordersarea collection of progressive neurological disorders that damage motor neurons the cells that control essential voluntary muscle functioning such as speaking, walking, breathing and swallowing. Generally information from nerve cells in the brain (called upper motor neurons)are transferred to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons) and from them to definite muscles. Upper motor neurons guide the lower motor neurons to generate movements such as walking or chewing. Lower motor neurons control movement in the arms, legs, chest, face, throat and tongue.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.