|Pathologically MS is characterized by inflammatory demyelination, a feature similar to viral infections of the CNS. While viruses have been considered as an important etiological agent in MS, no single virus has been consistently isolated from MS patients, to account for a substantial, if not all, cases of MS. However, it should be emphasized that a few neurotropic viruses do cause inflammatory demyelinating diseases similar to the pathological features of MS. The old and well-characterized model of inflammatory demyelinating virus infection in the mouse is Theilers murine encephalomyelitis (TMEV-IDD) Mokhtarian F et al., Multiple Sclerosis: Animal Models and Treatment Options.
The major complications of multiple sclerosis involve Bladder dysfunction, Fatigue, and other sympathetic and parasympathetic co-ordination problems. Bladder dysfunction is reported by approximately 75percent of people with MS. Filling symptoms (ie failure to store), such as increased frequency, urinary urgency and nocturia, and emptying symptoms, such as intermittency, weak stream and straining at the beginning of urination are the most common manifestations. Fatigue is arguably the commonest subjective complain in the MS population, reported in up to 90 percent of MS patients. It was linked to dysautonomia in some studies, pointing to a sympathetic vasomotor dysfunction with relative cardiovagal integrity Racosta JM et al., The Role of Autonomic Dysregulation from Pathophysiology to Therapeutics of Multiple Sclerosis: A Putative Novel Treatment Target?.