Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to cause immune dysfunction and moderate suppression of the immune system. A reduced T-helper1 (Th1) cytokine response level is also seen amongst diabetic individuals. This immune dysfunction is detrimental to the immune response against TB. Th1 cytokines are vital in the control and inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. For example, interferon gamma (IFN-Î³) is important for combating microbial infections and both IFN-Î³ and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa) activate macrophages. Activated macrophages release reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals such as nitric oxide which are essential for the control of infection, including TB Not only are macrophages the primary site of TB infection but these cells also instigate the main immune response to TB. Clinical presentation of Tuberculosis and Diabetes is overlapping many times, difficult to differentiate one from other. Loss of weight, loss of appetite and lassitude are common to both the diseases.
Last date updated on January, 2021