Tuberculosis (TB) remains the most common cause of death from infectious disease world-wide. Musculoskeletal tuberculosis accounts for about 10-15% of all TB notifications in the non-industrialized world. However, in the western world, musculoskeletal TB tends to be uncommon and accounts for about only 1-2% of all case of TB and about 10-15% of extra-pulmonary TB. The diagnosis of extra pulmonary tuberculosis is often challenging and can be delayed. Skeletal involvement is usually secondary, with the primary lesion occurring in the chest or genitourinary system. Previously pulmonary involvement has been reported to be undetectable in about half of the cases. Over 90% of cases of TB cases are found in the non-industrialized world. There has been re-emergence of TB in industrialized world. The resurgence of TB incidence in developed countries has been attributed to a rise in immune suppressed patients (HIV epidemic), multidrug resistant strains of Mycobacterium species, an ageing population, increased healthcare worker exposure and immigration.
Last date updated on January, 2021