|Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the worldĂ˘Â™s major health problems. It is estimated that 8.6 million people developed TB, and 1.3 million died from the disease in 2012. Because of the increased drug-resistance of the causative bacterium M. tuberculosis (Mtb), about a half of the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients were not successfully treated globally in 2010. Thus, it is urgent to identify novel therapeutic targets for developing drugs that can treat drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB. Since Mtb is an intracellular pathogen mainly residing in macrophages, thus elucidating the mechanisms underlying Mtb-macrophage interactions is crucial to the development of Mtb-host interfaces-targeted therapeutics. Shaped by eons of co-evolution with its host, the most successful human intracellular pathogen Mtb can persist in macrophages for long periods in a dormant state by deploying numerous strategies to evade host immunity. Several studies have revealed a variety of processes that are important for intracellular survival of Mtb.