mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis causes Johne disease in ruminants, a chronic diarrheal intestinal affliction similar to Crohn disease in humans. Humans are exposed to viable MAP in food, pasteurized milk and chlorinated municipal water. There are increasingly compelling data that Crohn disease is caused by MAP. Although difficult to achieve, these include the detection of MAP DNA, RNA, MAP specific proteins and the culture of MAP from Crohn disease intestine. Additionally, there is a commonality in a genetic defect (NOD2/Card15) in Crohn disease, Johne disease and leprosy. This defect impairs the host immune response (in both humans and ruminants) to mycobacterial infections.
Medications called âanti-inflammatoriesâ âimmune-modulatorsâ and âimmune-suppressants,â are used to treat multiple autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including Crohn disease and rheumatoid arthritis. There are unrefuted data that a number of these drugs cause dose dependent inhibition of MAP in culture. These include 5-ASA, methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine, cyclosporine A, rapamycin, tacrolimus, the piperidine 2-6 dione moiety of thalidomide and the thioamidesmethimizole and 5-propothiouricyl. By definition, this inhibition makes these agents anti-MAP antibiotics.
Last date updated on July, 2014