Human body consists of a number of defense mechanisms to counter infections and diseases. Lymph nodes as a part of human immune system usually enlarge whenever any pathology occurs in their area of drainage. Head and neck masses are a common clinical concern in infants, children and adults. There are number of etiologies that can cause cervical lymph nodes to enlarge, the frequent ones being tuberculosis, reactive or inflammatory lymphadenitis and malignancy, the commonest symptoms are swelling in the neck, cough, fever and anorexia. Tuberculosis remains a problem throughout the world and remains a common cause of cervical lymphadenopathy in many low income countries. The tuberculosis lymphadenitis is one of the most common extra pulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis. Cervical lymph nodes enlargement due non-tuberculosis mycobacteria remains are diagnostic challenge because of the inconsistent reliability of clinical and laboratory findings.
Last date updated on July, 2014