A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal) is a microscopic particle with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Nanoparticle research is currently an area of intense scientific research, due to a wide variety of potential applications in biomedical, optical, and electronic fields. Nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic or molecular structures. A bulk material should have constant physical properties regardless of its size, but at the nano-scale this is often not the case. Size-dependent properties are observed such as quantum confinement in semiconductor particles, surface plasmon resonance in some metal particles and superparamagnetism in magnetic materials. The properties of materials change as their size approaches the nanoscale and as the percentage of atoms at the surface of a material becomes significant. For bulk materials larger than one micrometre the percentage of atoms at the surface is minuscule relative to the total number of atoms of the material. Journal impact factor is an index or a criteria devised by Eugene Garfield to categorize journals based on their citations. Impact factor is considered as a putative marker to indicate the journal quality. But the recent policies being adopted to improve the impact factor is becoming a topic of controversies today. This current scenario questions the reliability of impact factor. The citation index cannot be considered to determine the scientific quality of an article because the technicalities are not considering the scientific quality. Knowing or reading an article is not enough to determine their quality validating the content and approving the findings and revalidating the facts is vital in scientific research. It is highly impossible to do a scholar check in each and every article to detect fraudulent or unsubstantial citations.
Last date updated on July, 2014