Geosciences conjointly referred to as oceanology and marine science, is that the branch of natural science that studies the ocean. Geosciences covers a large variety of topics as well as marine organisms and scheme dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geology fluid dynamics; tectonics and therefore the earth science of the ocean floor; and fluxes of assorted chemical substances and physical properties among the ocean and across its boundaries. A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on June, 2014