Particle radiation is a type of radiation which can be defined as fast-moving subatomic particles/rays. These rays are primarily generated through disintegration of unstable atoms. The radiation with same direction of motion is considered as particle radiation. Particle beam radiation therapy is one of the recent cancer therapy method used to treat cancers. This method devises beams of protons or other charged particles such as helium, carbon or other ions instead of photons for radiation therapy.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on September, 2021