Leadership can be defined as a multifaceted process of identifying a goal or target, motivating other people to act, and providing support and motivation to achieve mutually negotiated goals. Often the definitions of the words leader and manager are not rare confused. Traditional managers have assigned roles and titles within an organization, as they carry out specific functions, duties and responsibilities. Leaders do not necessarily have any delegated authority. They function within a variety of formal and informal roles. An individual can be a great leader but not a manager. Conversely, an individual can be a manager but not possess many leadership skills. Thus the nursing leadership does not rest merely with administrators and high-level managers, but also can be developed and implemented at the bedside. Nurses are likely to engage in a range of leadership activities in their daily routine. Some will naturally adopt an effective leadership style, while others may find the concept of leadership or seeing themselves as leaders difficult to understand. Effective leadership is critical in delivering high-quality care, ensuring patient safety and facilitating positive staff development.
The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
Last date updated on June, 2014