|An¬†operad¬†is a gadget used to describe algebraic structures in¬†symmetric monoidal categories. It is a bunch of abstract¬†operations¬†of arbitrarily many arguments, equipped with a notion of how to compose these, subject to evident¬†associativity¬†and¬†unitality¬†conditions. Operads are particularly important and useful in categories with a good notion of homotopy, where they play a key role in organizing hierarchies of higher homotopies.
A journal¬†is a¬†periodical publication¬†intended to further progress of¬†science, usually by reporting new¬†research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and¬†scientific papers¬†across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific¬†validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
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