|Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by dysregulation of bone formation and breakdown leading to more porous bone and greater risk of fracture. Bone quality, not bone quantity is the greatest predictor of osteoporosis-related fracture and is defined as bone mineral density (BMD), the diagnostic measure of bone quality. BMD is calculated as the mass of the bone by the area (g/cm2).BMD accounts for 50-80% of the breaking strength of bones and remains the best predictor of fracture risk. Osteoporosis is the leading cause of fracture in older adults. A reduction of one standard deviation of BMD results in a 1.5-fold increase in relative risk of fracture at most sites and reaches nearly 3-fold in the femoral neck. The most common sites of breaks include the distal radius, vertebrae, pelvis, and femoral neck. Of all osteoporotic fractures, a break of the hip is the most devastating. Within the first six months after a hip fracture, there is a 10-20% risk of mortality and 25-33% within the year in women over 65 years.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.