Low Back Pain (LBP) is often described as specific (clearly defined) or non-specific (not clearly defined). Specific LBP refers to symptoms cause by red flags such as tumor, fracture, cauda equina syndromes, infection etc., which is usually about 10% of LBP. Most (90%) LBP are classified as non- specific because a definite diagnosis cannot be achieved by current radiological means thus leaving a diagnostic vacuum. Nevertheless, it has been reported that majority of nonspecific LBP originate from the intervertebral disc (50%), facet joints (20%) and SIJ (20%). Generally speaking, SIJ dysfunction refers to pain in the SIJ region that is caused by abnormal motion in the SIJ and it is divided into intra and extra articular dysfunction with the intra articular pathologies including the above mentioned red flags. Extra articular SIJ dysfunction is a disorder of abnormal joint movement and alignment owing to disruption of the posterior ligamentous support system. This leads to recurrent hyper/hypo mobility, inflammation and in more severe cases, instability and recurrent subluxation that eventuate into pain in the low back, gluteal regoin, sciatic - leg, groin and hip. Other symptoms may include urinary frequency and transient numbness.
Michael O Egwu, Relative Sensitivity, Specificity and Perceived Exertion of Some Provocative Tests in the Mechanical Diagnosis of Sacro-Iliac Joint Dysfunction among Patients with Low Back Pain
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Last date updated on November, 2020