The most important biological factors related to pain include pain matrix alterations, cytokines and opioid levels, and gender. Psychological factors can be emotional disorders, such as prolonged depressive disorders, chronic anxiety and/or stress, or type of temperament and coping styles, all of which interfere with the individual functioning levels. Moreover, a social component of pain is linked to certain familial models, or to the particular culture concerning pain (for example, in medical assistance), to the social support received or perceived, and to several strengthened factors such as attention or economic costs. The cerebral processing of pain was in the recent past subdivided into somatosensory pain processing (mainly related to the lateral thalamic nuclei), affective pain processing (linked to the insula, anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala) and the cognitive aspect of pain processing (particularly involving the prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex and hippocampus).
Riccardo G. V. Torta, Depressive Disorders and Pain: A Joint Model of Diagnosis and Treatment
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Last date updated on June, 2014