Fasting is an act of willing abstinence or reduction from certain or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time, week or days. Other fasts may be only partially restrictive, limiting particular foods or substances. The fast may also be intermittent in nature. Metabolic changes toward the fasting state begin after absorption of a meal (typically 35 hours after a meal); "post-absorptive state" is synonymous with this usage, in contrast to the "post-prandial" state of ongoing digestion. An absolute fast is normally defined as abstinence from all food and liquid for a defined period, usually a single day (24 hours), or several days.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.
Last date updated on November, 2020