A Proposal to Standardize Permeation by Iontophoresis Technic without Applying Inversion of Phase
Rafael de Castro Ferreira1, ClÃ¡udia Rossetti1, David Feder1, Ligia Ajaime Azzalis2,Fabio Ferreira Perazzo2,
Virginia Berlanga Campos Junqueira2, Edimar Cristiano Pereira2, Paschoal Rossetti Filho3, Fernando Luiz
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Iontophoresis is a non-invasive technique that uses an externally applied small electrical potential difference to provide a controlled way to increase the transdermal transference of a variety of active agents with poor absorption/permeation through the skin. The aims of this research were (1) to determine if the inversion of phase was indicated during the performance of the iontophoresis; (2) standardize the time for ionization and (3) to propose the adequate frequency and polarity to reach different skin layers. Observing the depth and intensity of China ink (pH 7.8 + 0.2) transferred through the layers of ex vivo human tissues from the abdominal area, it was possible to show that the inversion of phases was not a viable methodology to increase the permeation of active agents, and it could even decrease the quality of permeation of a conduction that started correctly.