A Review on Urinary Tract Infection in Pregnancy
Urinary tract infection is one among the most common infectious disease which occurs during pregnancy. Several physiological and hormonal changes during pregnancy may increase the incidence of infection among pregnant women. It can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can lead to the development of cystitis or pyelonephritis. Gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, roteus, Providencia species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter and Serratia are the most common etiological agent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic Urinary tract infection. Quantitative culture technique considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of Urinary tract infection. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Hence the proper treatment is of at most importance based on the urine culture and sensitivity reports. It is also important to conform the safety of drugs used during of pregnancy. Antibiotics like Nitrofurantoin, Trimethoprim or Cephalexin are appropriate drug of choices for the treatment. Resistance of microorganism towards the commonly prescribing antibiotics is the most challenging factor for the treatment. So before stopping the antibiotic therapy, Confirmation of the complete eradication of pathogenic organism is necessary to prevent reoccurrence of urinary tract infection. Proper hygiene and various precautions may also help in preventing its reoccurrence.