Diabetes Associated Memory Impairment: Perspective on Management Strategies
The comorbidity of diabetes and memory impairment is rapidly increasing and imposes a great burden on the healthcare worldwide. It is one of the most alarming illnesses especially to elderly people. Diabetes mellitus is the peril element for memory dysfunction and memory impairment in the old age. Hyperglycemia is a pathological condition associated with diabetes and memory impairment. The pathogenesis of memory impairment has been correlated with hyperglycaemia induced metabolic derangements, reactive oxygen species, advanced glycation end products and neurophysiological alterations, neuronal abnormalities. Long term hyperglycaemia elicits enhanced glycation pathway, increased non-enzymatic glycation of various structural proteins, moreover increased oxidative stress as well as altered the advanced glycation end products activity and proinflammatory pathways activation that are all inter-related for the cause and development of memory impairment. These in turn activate or suppress the AGE/RAGE activity or activate amyloidogenesis and proinflammatory pathways which furthermore resulting in functional and structural derangement of nerve cell. Furthermore, the aspect of these studies highlight and encourages which escalating the perspective of memory impairment and opening a new window for the development of new therapeutics. Memory impairment is materializing new complication of type 2 diabetes that feels necessity for further study. This review study highlights the functioning of pathogenic mechanisms and pathways involved in the development of diabetes associated memory impairment and also the current therapies with their drawbacks as well as the advanced therapy.