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Review Article


Shorish Mustafa Abdullah1 and Ahmad Hama Ameen Hama Rashid2*
  1. Dep. of Biology, College of Science / University of Soran-Erbil / Iraqi Kurdistan Region
  2. Dep. of Field Crops, Faculty of Agric. Sciences / University of Sulaimani/Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Iraq
Corresponding Author: Ahmad Hama Ameen Hama Rashid, E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 14 June 2014 Accepted: 03 August 2014
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-sowing treatments with UV-ray on the amount of essential oil and its components. The results showed that UV-C, high energetic, had greater effect on studied characters, especially plant secondary metabolites than UV-A. And also D2 distance between UV source and exposed seeds produced higher values of essential oil components of seeds compared to D1. There were differences effect of exposed times on the studied characters, the highest fixed oil rate was found when the seeds exposed to UV for 40 min. while the optimum protein and essential oil contents were found at 20 min. radiation, whereas at 60 min. radiation, higher concentration of trans-anethole was accumulated. The results showed that exposing seeds to UV-C ×D2 ×T2 significantly increased essential oil yield (42.40 kg ha-1) compared to control (10.63 kg ha-1 ), while exposing seeds to UV-C at 6 cm distance for 20 min. significantly increased the rate of essential oil compared to control. While the higher rate of fixed oil was recorded after exposing the seeds to UV-A ×D2 ×T2 with values (12 %) control (5%). Concerning the studied chemical compounds, they were significantly affected by UV-ray, but each had an optimum dose for accumulating a high rate. The higher concentration of trans-anethole as the main compound of anise essential oil, was found to be (43.824 mg ml-1) after exposing seeds to UV-C at 6 cm distance for 60 min. compared to control (7.955 mg ml-1), while by decreasing exposure time to 40 min. for the same treatment, the concentration of estragole recorded the highest rate (1.87 mg ml-1) compared to control (0.818 mg ml-1). Moreover, anisaldehyde recorded high concentration with UV-C×D1×T1 (2.131 mg ml-1), dianethole with UV-A ×D2×T2 (15.03 mg ml-1), anisic acid with UV-C×D2×T1 (5.064 mg ml-1), linalool with UV-A ×D1×T1 (4.044 mg ml-1) and limonene in control treatment (3.689 mg ml-1). The studied correlation coefficients verified that the essential oil was positively and significantly correlated with each of fixed oil and protein. Trans-anethole had negative and significant correlations with limonene and linalool (-0.668** and -0.468**), respectively, and also had positive and significant correlations with estragole with enisaldehyde (0.556**) and dianethole (0.716**).


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