Incidence of Microbes on Dental Implants
Dental implants are inert, alloplastic materials embedded in the maxilla or mandible for the management of tooth loss and to aid replacement of lost orofacial structures as a result of trauma, neoplasia and congenital defects. The most common type of dental implant is endosseous comprising a discrete, single implant unit (screw- or cylinder-shaped are the most typical forms) placed within a drilled space within dentoalveolar or basal bone. Microbial colonization and host-tissue integration are fundamentally related with molecular principles of cell attachment and adhesion. Thus, implant materials, which are chosen because of their "friendliness" to tissue cells, offer particularly conducible environment for bacterial adhesion. The long term success of a dental implant strongly depends on good adhesion of the surrounding tissue to the biomaterial. The interactions between bacteria and oral implant materials show microbial adhesion and aggregation. Colonization of the the oral cavity by bacteria in humans starts at birth and remains constant through life. Large quantities of lactobacillus spp, responsible for biofilm adhesion, and Streptococcus spp (mainly S. sanguinis, S.oralis, S.mitis and S. sobrinus), which promote biofilm growth, are initial colonisers.Actinomyces spp and Gram-negative species are found in low proportion at this phase. However a variety of bacterial species are transitory in the oral cavity. The person’s satisfaction with a prosthetic rehabilitation of dental care on a person as a whole has both positive and negative impact on their life. The present review emphasizes the microbial population after implantation, its affinity towards various types of implants and the social impact of it towards the life of people.