Mycotoxins that Affect the Human Cardiovascular System
Mycotoxins Laboratory, Department of Botany, Institute of Biology, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) , Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico
- *Corresponding Author:
- Magda Carvajal-Moreno
Mycotoxins Laboratory, Department of Botany
Institute of Biology, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM )
Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico DF
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: April 24, 2015; Accepted date: April 27, 2015; Published date: May 04, 2015
Citation: Carvajal-Moreno M (2015) Mycotoxins that Affect the Human Cardiovascular System. Pharm Anal Acta 6:365. doi: 10.4172/2153-2435.1000365
Copyright: © 2015 Carvajal-Moreno M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi in the field or during storage; these fungi are mainly saprophytic molds growing on foodstuffs or animal feeds. These molds produce chemical compounds of low molecular weight that are not detected by antigens and hence are insidious poisons with no obvious symptoms. Since 1960, mycotoxins have been considered responsible for diseases and death in domestic animals and humans. Mycotoxicoses, the diseases caused by mycotoxins, have been responsible for major epidemics in humans and domestic animals since agriculture was developed. Each of these diseases is caused by specific molds that produce one or more potent toxins, usually in one specific type of commodity or feed. Among the main mycotoxigenic fungi are the genera Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp. and Fusarium spp. The symptoms caused by mycotoxins can be acute or chronic, depending on the type of toxin and the dose. The symptoms of acute mycotoxicoses include liver and kidney damage, attacks on the central nervous system, skin disorders, hormonal effects, miscarriage, hemorrhage, vomiting, diarrhea and many others. Mycotoxins are eaten in trace quantities in the daily diet; some, such as aflatoxins, can accumulate, whereas others are quickly eliminated. Examples of chronic mycotoxicoses include Reye syndrome, Kwashiorkor, and cancers that develop in experimental animals or humans long after the mycotoxin is eaten. In the present review, we will describe some mycotoxins that cause circulatory problems, vein breakage, hemorrhage, and heart failure.