Newer Developments in the Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment.
The surgery, radiation therapy and chemo therapy are the conventional treatments of cancers which have own limitations. Certain Nano Particles (NP) can be designed to absorb preferentially certain wave length of radiation if they enter in the cancerous cells then they will burn them. The NP will circulate through the body, detect cancer associated molecular changes, assist with imaging, release a therapeutic agent and then monitor the effectiveness of the intervention. Recent advancement in nanoparticles have been done with more emphasis on targeting of nanoparticle to the tumour cells which can decrease the side effects to the normal cells. They have been used in vivo to protect the drug entity in the systemic circulation, restrict access of the drug to the chosen sites and to deliver the drug at a controlled and sustained rate to the site of action. Over the last two decades, a large number of nanoparticle delivery systems have been developed for cancer therapy some of them are liposomal, polymer–drug conjugates, and micellar formulations and an even greater number of nanoparticle platforms are currently in the preclinical stages of development. In this review, we discuss the various nanoparticle drug delivery platforms, the important concepts involved in nanoparticle drug delivery and basis fundamentals behind targeting of nanoparticles. We have also reviewed the clinical data on the approved nanoparticle therapeutics as well as the nanotherapeutics under clinical investigation.