Role of Estrogen and Progesterone in Human Disorders An Overview
Estrogen and progesterone are considered to be female sex hormones and play a widespread role in human physiology. Apart from reproduction, they also have role in cardiovascular health, cognition, bone integrity, immunity and cell proliferative actions. Estrogen and progesterone exert their action through estrogen receptors (ER) α and β, and progesterone receptor (PR) A and B respectively via genomic and non-genomic pathways. In cardiovascular disorders such as atherosclerosis, these hormones are found to have cardioprotective as well as antioxidant effect. Beta amyloid accumulation reduces in presence of estrogen and progesterone thereby they decrease the progression of neurodegenerative disorder such as Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally estrogen and progesterone are found to exert beneficial effect in Parkinson’s disorder. Estrogen and progesterone affects calcium metabolism and thus prevent the occurrence and progression of Osteoporosis. However in diseases such as systemic lupus erythmetosus (SLE), these hormones aggravate immune response and play a pathological role in development of disease. These both female sex hormones are the key hormones to be involved in breast cancer. They are found to stimulate proliferation and enhance the invasiveness of breast cancer cells. Thus the role of estrogen and progesterone in occurrence and development of various diseases is complex and controversial. This review briefly summarizes the role of Estrogen and progesterone in development and progression of various diseases.