WOUND REPAIRMENT: IMMUNE MACHINERY OF AQUATIC INVERTEBRATE
Bioscience and Environmental Studies Section, Pranta Palli High School, J-Block, Baghajatin Palli, Kolkata - 32, West Bengal, India
|Corresponding Author: Sanjib Saha, Bioscience and Environmental Studies Section, Pranta Palli High School, J-Block, Baghajatin Palli, Kolkata - 32, West Bengal, India, E-mail: [email protected]|
|Received: 31 May 2012 Accepted: 10 August 2012|
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Aquatic invertebrates are small animals, such as poriferans, cnidarians, nematodes, annelids, insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and echinoderms that live in water. Aquatic invertebrates found in pools, lakes, springs and river. Some of them exist in highly saline waters, lagoons, hot springs. In the highly competitive such challenging environment, invertebrates experiences physical wounding due to inter and intraspecific struggle and struggle with environmental adversities. Animals physiologically respond to tissue repairment following external injury and repairment of wound and rapid sealing of the exoskeleton are required to prevent the loss of hemolymph and opportunistic invasion of pathogens. Tissue repairment involves coagulation of plasma proteins which are degranulated from adherent hemocytes and degranulated flattened cells get adhered over the damage area and form a membranous structure which traps other type of surrounding cells. Plasma gelation involves the activation of enzyme prophenoloxidase which in turn activates phenoloxidase which results in sequential activation of a cascade of biochemical reaction. Phenoloxidase cascade resembles the mammalian complement pathway and leads to killing of invading pathogens. Invertebrate wound repairing immune response mainly based on innate immune effector cells or hemocytes and hemolymph. Such immunocytes show diverse functional activities during wound repairment including aggregation, adhesion, coagulation, phagocytosis, degranulation, generation of cytotoxic agents and hemolymph consists of different proteins and enzymes in inactive forms to get active to protect the invertebrates invading pathogens and toxins of unknown chemical nature within hostile environment.