Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.
During Petroleum exploration, water, which is trapped in underground formations, is brought to the surface along with oil or gas. This water, referred to as Produced water, has constituents that make it unsafe to be discharged into the environment without adequate treatment. In offshore locations, the situation is even more difficult since there is always limited space for produced water treatment. The treatment of Produced water will not only provide water for use but will protect our environment against pollution. This paper has reviewed exhaustively the various ways of handling produced water on the basis of its constituents, expected use of the effluent fluid, adherence to the local regulations on environmental protection, available expertise, and cost of its treatment. Furthermore, the paper has selected some key produced water treatment techniques, discussed their advantages as well as limitations to enable oil and gas operators to make informed decision depending on the circumstances surrounding their operations.
Oil is a major global energy source and its exploration and production is extremely important. While oil production is desirable, it results in some unfavorable effects to the environment. In underground structure, rocks that occur normally are accompanied with fluids (water, hydrocarbon, or a combination of the two).
Last date updated on July, 2014