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Pharmacology is the branch of medicine which is mainly concerned with drug delivery. Two models of dose-response relationships between dose, concentration or intensity of any effector and response of living organisms are commonly applied in biology and pharmacology. In the simplest first linear model, the registered parameter shows a linear increase with increase of dose, concentration, or intensity of the effector and in some cases this linear model is also called linear non-threshold model. The latter is important in order to discriminate it from the second widely applied âthreshold modelâ when the response cannot be linearly extrapolated to âzeroâ level of the effector. In both cases, the a-angles can vary widely and depend on many factors including the model type, specific conditions used and the properties of effectors as well as do the distance. The latter is called the âlag phaseâ and may reflect the operation of defense mechanisms that prevent an immediate response by organisms. Biological and pharmacological effects depend on the cumulative effects of single acts of interaction between the effector and the biological subject. However, in many cases the dose-response relationships do not follow neither linearnor threshold. The relationship between the level of the effector and the biological response that it elicits is a cornerstone of basic and applied disciplines such as biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, and toxicology. (Volodymyr I Lushchak, Hormesis in Biology and Pharmacology)
Last date updated on July, 2014