Positivism sharply separates law and morality. It is often contrasted with Natural Law, which is based on the belief that all written laws must follow universal principles of morality, religion, and justice. Positivists concede that ethical theories of morality, religion, and justice may include aspirational principles of human conduct. However, positivists argue that such theories differ from law in that they are unenforceable and therefore should play no role in the interpretation and application of legislation. Thus, positivists conclude that as long as a written law has been duly enacted by a branch of government, it must be deemed valid and binding, regardless of whether it offends anyone's sense of right and wrong.
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on July, 2014